Swift uses ARC (Automatic Reference Counting) similar to Objective-C to track and manage application memory. In most cases, we don’t need to bother about memory management by ourselves, the swift compiler will take care of it. But there are some cases where we need to deal with it by ourselves. I am going to discuss some of the common cases from those.
Let’s imagine we have two classes Person and Apartment:
The deinit method is called when a class is deallocated and set to nil. Now so far so good, we have our code clean and leak free as both deinit methods are being called.
ARC tracks the number of references to a object created and deallocates the instance when no longer needed. But it is possible to achieve a situation where an instance of a class never reaches to a point where it has no strong references.
Consider the following change:
We can see the deinit is not getting called anymore, i.e. the person instance is not getting rid of the memory completely. Somewhere someone is holding a strong reference to it. This is happening because we are holding a strong reference of the Person class instance in the Apartment class instance. Now if we change the reference from strong to weak:
We magically start to get our output again! Now again, if we modify our classes like this:
We have both classes referring to each other as strong reference. If two class instances hold a strong reference to each other, such that each instance keeps the other one alive, these instances never reaches a zero(0) reference situation. This is known as a strong reference cycle/ retain cycle.
If we run the following code block, it never reaches the deinit method again.
The retain cycle causes both object instances to live in memory and no way to free them and ultimately causing a memory leak.
We resolve strong reference cycles by defining some of the relationships between classes as weak or unowned reference instead of as strong reference.
By defining the person variable in Apartment class as weak, we’re stopping the increment on person vars reference count and thus breaking the retain cycle. (I’ll discuss more on weak and unowned in a future blogpost.)
A strong reference cycle can also occur if a closure variable calls its class instance inside the closure body. Consider the following example:
asHTML property is declared as a lazy property, because it is only needed when if and only if the element actually needs to be rendered as a string value for some HTML output target; thus lazily initialized. The fact
asHTML is a lazy property means we can refer to
self within the default closure, because the lazy property will not be accessed until the initialization has been completed and
self is known to exist.
If we run the code, we’ll see the deinit method is not being called, again! The instance’s
asHTML property holds a strong reference to its closure. However, because the closure refers to
self within its body (as a way to reference
self.text), the closure captures self, which means, it holds a strong reference back to the
HTMLElement instance and thus a strong reference cycle is created between the two.
We can resolve this strong reference cycle between the closure and the class instance by defining a capture list as part of the closure’s definition.
A capture list defines the rules to use when capturing one or more reference types within the closure’s body.
As with strong reference cycles between two class instances, we declare each captured reference to be a weak or unowned reference rather than a strong reference. The appropriate choice of weak or unowned depends on the relationships between the different parts of the code.
This implementation of
HTMLElement is identical to the previous implementation, apart from the addition of a capture list within the
asHTML closure. In this case, the capture list is
[weak self], which means “capture self as an weak reference rather than a strong reference”.
This time, the capture of
self by the closure is an weak reference, and does not keep a strong hold on the
HTMLElement instance it has captured. If we set the strong reference from the
paragraph variable to
HTMLElement instance is deallocated, as can be seen from the printing of its deinitializer message in the example above.
A more detailed example and explanation can be found in Apple’s Swift 3 Documentation. All the examples used here are taken from the documentation and been simplified for convenience.
Happy coding 🙂